Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Community Psychology and Public Health Approaches to...

Community Psychology and Public Health approaches to Social Problems All change, individual or collective, stems from discontent or dissatisfaction with the status quo. The same is true of mainstream Psychology. The 1940’s through to the mid 1960’s gave rise to Community Health Psychology and The Public Health Psychology. Both these movements are concerned with prevention and the need to address social injustices and structures to include the community and society at large and not just the elitist minority. Neither†¦show more content†¦A three -tier structure, namely primary, secondary and tertiary intervention exists. A good example to illustrate this would be alcoholism or substance abuse. On a primary intervention, campaigns warn off the harmful effects of substances abuse. The secondary intervention is the abuse itself, the ability to recognise the symptoms and treatment via rehabilitation or counseling, whilst tertiary intervention is the support that is offered after rehabilitation. Here organisations like Alcoholics Ano nymous come into play, to prevent relapses and to offer maximum support. I believe the Public Health Model to be a very strong, workable model. Like the above model, it has empowerment on various levels and takes into account the various social and behavioural sciences and it’s impact on the individual. It attempts to know it and integrate it as part of the model rather than a model within it. It realizes the importance of understanding and manipulating these sciences to the desired end. However a strong criticism of this model is that the participants are viewed as being passive. There doesn’t seem to be any push from the individual himself but merely society restructuring to accommodate him on all levels. Also it does not take into account religious and traditional beliefs. In western society sharing of utensils is unhygienic, yet in African society it is almost the norm. The Community Psychology and PublicShow MoreRelatedCommunity Psychology and Public Health Approaches to Social Problems in South Africa806 Words   |  3 PagesMy aim in this paper is to analyse community psychology and public health and distinguish between the two approaches. Community Psychology focuses on economic, environmental, political and social factors that influence the way in which people all over the world live their lives. It also touches on social factors that contribute or causes problems in various societies. Public Health on the other hand, according to Tutorial Letter 102/0/2014, is defined as being concerned with â€Å"preventing disease andRead MoreCritically Compare and Contrast Community Psychology and Public Health Approaches to Social Problems851 Words   |  4 Pagescontrast community psychology and public health approaches to social problems. I will do this by comparing strengths and weaknesses of both approaches, as well as similarities between these app roaches. To compare these two concepts, one should first have a basic understanding of the origins and historical development of community psychology and public health. According to the American Heritage Medical dictionary (www.ahdictionary.com) Community Psychology is â€Å"the application of psychology to communityRead MoreCommunity Psychology1488 Words   |  6 Pagescompare and contrast community psychology with the public health approach Introduction In this essay, I will critically compare and contrast community psychology and the public health model in terms of their origins, core concepts, strengths and pitfalls of each approach, similarities and differences and in what way these approaches do or do not supplement one another. Community Psychology according to The Cambridge Dictionary of Psychology is defined as â€Å"a branch of applied psychology that focuses onRead MoreComparison with Community Psychology and Public Health1055 Words   |  5 Pagesdefines community psychology (CP) as â€Å"the application of psychology to community programs for the prevention of mental health disorders and the promotion of mental health.† Publi c health (PH) on the other hand is defined as â€Å"the science and practice of protecting and improving the health of a community as by preventative medicine; health education; control of communicable diseases; application of sanitary measures and monitoring of environmental hazards (website two, 2007).† Both approaches have itsRead MoreComparison with Community Psychology and Public Health1049 Words   |  5 Pagesdefines community psychology (CP) as â€Å"the application of psychology to community programs for the prevention of mental health disorders and the promotion of mental health.† Public health (PH) on the other hand is defined as â€Å"the science and practice of protecting and improving the health of a community as by preventative medicine; health education; control of communicable diseases; application of sanitary measures and monitoring of environmental hazards (website two, 2007).† Both approaches have itsRead MoreA Comparison of Community Psycho logy and Public Health1179 Words   |  5 PagesCOMPARISON OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY AND PUBLIC HEALTH. In this assignment the key differences and similarities of community psychology and the public health approach will be examined and critically compared. Community Psychology is a branch of psychology which is concerned primarily with achieving positive mental health in the broader context of the community rather than the individual. Public health is primarily concerned and focused on changing behaviours within the context of the public in orderRead MorePyc4811 Assignment 11430 Words   |  6 PagesPYC4811 Assignment 1- 657794 Student Number- 55560296 Community Psychology and Public Health’s Approaches to Social Problems Introduction Community Psychology and Public Health models both cover the same ground but with key differences in the explanation of causes and influences on mental illness. Community psychology has a primary focus on understanding, and working with, people in their wider social context. Public Health on the other hand is concerned with preventing disease andRead MoreUnwanted and Unplanned Teen Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Illness1544 Words   |  7 Pagesof age was 329,797 (â€Å"Birth Rates for U.S.†, 2012). Although the decline in unwanted and unplanned teen births is on the rise the United States continues to be among the highest of industrialized countries facing this problem. This is a prevailing social concern because of the health risks to these young mothers as well as their babies. Teens at higher risk of becoming pregnant are raised at or below the poverty level by single parents; live in environments that cause high levels of stress (i.e.Read MoreApproaches to Crime Prevention Essay1036 Words   |  5 PagesThe Dominant Approaches Used For Crime Prevention Jamal Sanchez Bush Crime Prevention CJ212 June 21, 2011 Introduction Crime prevention has influenced by so many fields like sociology, psychology, criminology, urban planning and design, health care, education, community development, economics social work, among the others. This paper focuses on the dominant approaches to crime prevention which is currently used by law enforcement, courts, and corrections. The dominantRead MoreSocial Psychology1232 Words   |  5 PagesTuesday, Mar. 28, 2000 social psychology Socialization The process by which personality is formed as the result of social influences is called socialization. Early research methods employed case studies of individuals and of individual societies (e.g., primitive tribes). Later research has made statistical comparisons of numbers of persons or of different societies; differences in child-rearing Community Psychology and Public Health Approaches to... My aim in this paper is to analyse community psychology and public health and distinguish between the two approaches. Community Psychology focuses on economic, environmental, political and social factors that influence the way in which people all over the world live their lives. It also touches on social factors that contribute or causes problems in various societies. Public Health on the other hand, according to Tutorial Letter 102/0/2014, is defined as being concerned with â€Å"preventing disease and distress† in the community as a whole, not just the individual, before they occur. It promotes healthy living and with the prevention of illness linked with lifestyle. To compare these two concepts, one should first have a basic understanding of the origins and historical development of community psychology and public health. Community Psychology are very much linked with the mental health reform movements in the USA. The three most important reform movements were; ‘Moral Treatment’, ‘The Mental Hygiene’ and ‘Deinstitutionalisation’. Each of these movements have led to the establishment of particular types of institution: In the Moral Treatment era, we got therapeutic mental hospitals, the Mental Hygiene era gave us Child Guidance Clinics and the establishment of Community Health Centers came in the Deinstitutionalisation era (Tutorial Letter 102/0/2014). Public health, like community psychology, focuses on prevention of disease. It is defined as â€Å"the science and practice ofShow MoreRelatedCommunity Psychology1488 Words   |  6 Pagescompare and contrast community psychology with the public health approach Introduction In this essay, I will critically compare and contrast community psychology and the public health model in terms of their origins, core concepts, strengths and pitfalls of each approach, similarities and differences and in what way these approaches do or do not supplement one another. Community Psychology according to The Cambridge Dictionary of Psychology is defined as â€Å"a branch of applied psychology that focuses onRead MoreA Comparison of Community Psychology and Public Health1179 Words   |  5 PagesCOMPARISON OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY AND PUBLIC HEALTH. In this assignment the key differences and similarities of community psychology and the public health approach will be examined and critically compared. Community Psychology is a branch of psychology which is concerned primarily with achieving positive mental health in the broader context of the community rather than the individual. Public health is primarily concerned and focused on changing behaviours within the context of the public in orderRead MoreComparison with Community Psychology and Public Health1055 Words   |  5 Pagesdefines community psychology (CP) as â€Å"the application of psychology to community programs for the prevention of mental health disorders and the promotion of mental health.† Public health (PH) on the other hand is defined as â€Å"the science and practice of protecting and improving the health of a community as by preventative medicine; health education; control of communicable diseases; application of sanitary measures and monitoring of enviro nmental hazards (website two, 2007).† Both approaches have itsRead MoreComparison with Community Psychology and Public Health1049 Words   |  5 Pagesdefines community psychology (CP) as â€Å"the application of psychology to community programs for the prevention of mental health disorders and the promotion of mental health.† Public health (PH) on the other hand is defined as â€Å"the science and practice of protecting and improving the health of a community as by preventative medicine; health education; control of communicable diseases; application of sanitary measures and monitoring of environmental hazards (website two, 2007).† Both approaches have itsRead MoreCritically Compare and Contrast Community Psychology and Public Health Approaches to Social Problems851 Words   |  4 Pagescontrast community psychology and public health approaches to social problems. I will do this by comparing strengths and weaknesses of both approaches, as well as similarities between these approaches. To compare these two concepts, one should first have a basic understanding of the origins and historical development of community psychology and public health. According to the American Heritage Medical dictionary (www.ahdictionary.com) Community Psychology is â€Å"the application of psychology to communityRead MorePyc4811 Assignment 11430 Words   |  6 PagesPYC4811 Assignment 1- 657794 Student Number- 55560296 Community Psychology and Public Health’s Approaches to Social Problems Introduction Community Psychology and Public Health models both cover the same ground but with key differences in the explanation of causes and influences on mental illness. Community psychology has a primary focus on understanding, and working with, people in their wider social context. Public Health on the other hand is concerned with preventing disease andRead MoreCommunity Psychology and Public Health Approaches to Social Problems1049 Words   |  5 PagesCommunity Psychology and Public Health approaches to Social Problems All change, individual or collective, stems from discontent or dissatisfaction with the status quo. The same is true of mainstream Psychology. The 1940’s through to the mid 1960’s gave rise to CommunityRead MoreFamily Tree19118 Words   |  77 Pageschronological evolution and comparison of approaches and findings. The goal of this report is to clarify the understandings and the uses of the most influential theories, strategies, and techniques. Theory refers to sets of concepts and propositions that articulate relations among variables to explain and predict situations and results. Theories explain the nature and causes of a given problem and provide guidelines for practical interventions. Diagnoses of problems translate into strategies, that is,Read MoreCarl Rogers Influence on the History and Philosophy of Mental Health Counseling3453 Words   |  14 PagesMental Health Counseling Introduction Carl Rogers was born on 8th of January in the year 1902 in Oak Park, Illinois. He was the founder of psychology of humans and his contributions to psychotherapy and psychology continue to dominate throughout the field of medicine for practitioners. His practice and theory transitioned the authoritarian paradigm of therapy-led counseling to a client-centered practice, which gave the client self-knowledge towards healing and solving their own problems. In additionRead MoreEmployee Engagement and CSR: TRANSACTIONAL, RELATIONAL, AND DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACHES12982 Words   |  52 PagesEmployee Engagement and CSR: TRANSACTIONAL, RELATIONAL, AND DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACHES Philip Mirvis This article looks at the relevance of corporate social responsibility (CSR) for engaging employees, including its impact on their motivation, identity, and sense of meaning and purpose. It explores three different ways that companies engage their employees through CSR: a transactional approach, where programs are undertaken to meet the needs of employees who want to take part in the CSR

Confirmation Of The Offer By The Offered †Myassignmenrhelp.Com

Questions: Whether any contract is formed, if yes, when the same was formed and with whom? Bernards legal position and remedies? Charlenes legal position and remedies? Damiens legal position and remedies? Types of alternate dispute resolution technique and their respective pros and cons? Answers: Introducation The contract is an agreement which can be enforceable in law provided it comprises of all the contract essentials (RBC Properties Pte Ltd v Defu Furniture Pte Ltd , [2014] ). The main contract essentials are:(Advice, 2012) An offer is a contract ingredient which is made by an offeror to an offeree according to which proposals with defined term are made and it is desired that the offeree will approve the offer (Woo Kah Wai v Chew Ai Hua Sandra , [2014]). When the offer comes in the notion of offeree then it is complete(Daniel John Brader and others v Commerzbank AG, 2013).(Goh, Lee, Tham, 2014) An acceptance is the confirmation of the offer by the offeree. The acceptance should correspond to the terms of the offer in order to be valid. It is the offeree who should accept the offer. Confirmation by any other person is not an acceptance in law(Midlink Development Pte Ltd v The Stansfield Group Pte Ltd, 2004). When the acceptance comes in the knowledge of the offeror then it is complete (R1 International Pte Ltd v Lonstroff AG, 2014). When the acceptance is made by post, then, it is complete when the letter is posted. (Goh, Lee, Tham, 2014) Whenever an acceptance is made then the offeree must agree to the terms of the offer. If an acceptance is made which is not equivalent to the offer terms then there is no offer (Hyde v Wrench , [1840]). When the offeree does not accept the offer but changes the terms of the offer then it is counter offer (Tekdata Interconnections Ltd v Amphenol Ltd, 2009). A counter offer cancels the offer and the new offer is the counter offers which if approved by the offeror results in contract.(Nicholas, 2017) When no offer is made but offers are invited from public then it is invitation to offer (Fisher v Bell , [1961] ). An invitation can be made through advertisement. The people relying on advertisement can make offer and the adviser must accept the same to make a binding contract (Partridge v Crittenden , [1968]). (Nicholas, 2017) When an offer is accepted then there is agreement that is made amid the parties. But, when the promises are exchanged then the parties must have legal intention when the same are done. Any offer and acceptance when made without any legal intention then it has no relevance in law (T2 Networks Pte Ltd v Nasioncom Sdn Bhd, 2008). In domestic relationship, the legal intention is normally presumed to be lacking but is presume to be present in commercial relationships. But, this presumption is rebuttable. (Goh, Lee, Tham, 2014) Apart from offer, acceptance and intention, the parties must be exchanging the promises with some kind of benefit which supports the promises. It is called consideration in law and it makes the contract enforceable in law (Chwee Kin Keong and others v Digilandmall.com Pte Ltd , 2004). Thus, these are the main elements of contract law which is applied to the facts of the case. Application of law As per the facts, Alan was a student. He intends to sell his books introduction to business law in Singapore. On 1st November 2015, he posted a note on facebook wherein he invited his friends to make offers to buy the book. So, as per (Fisher v Bell , [1961] )and (Partridge v Crittenden , [1968]), Allan has made an invitation to offer by advertising his book and his notes for sale. The selling price of the book/notes was $ 200 and he kept the offer open till 5th November. Also, as per (Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Company , [1892]), the offer is for specific persons, so, the acceptance must also be made from such persons only. Since the offeree are defines, so, the acceptance must be made by the offeree only. Now, the issues are resolved. A valid contract was established amid Allan and Damien on 4th November evening, when an offer is made by Damien to buy the book at $ 200 and the same was accepted by Allan there and then. Bernards legal position and remedies On 2nd November, Bernard (who is the friend of the facebook of Allan) made an offer to Allan that he is interested in buying the book. However, he offered that he is interested in buying the book @ $150. Thus, an offer is made by Bernard which must be accepted by Allan to make a valid contract with Bernard. On 3rd Nov, Allan replied to the post of Bernard and he submitted that he is not keen to accept the offer at $ 150. Thus, the offer that is made by Bernard is rejected by Allan. Now, there is no offer which is present against which an acceptance can be made by the parties. On 4th November, Bernard posted $ 200 to Allan which is received by Allan on 5th November. However, Bernard has sent an acceptance, but, the same is not valid as there is no offer which is made by Allan to Bernard. No acceptance can be made when there is no offer at place. It will make no difference as when the letter is posted and when it is received. Since there is no offer so there can be no acceptance without the same. iii.Charleens legal position and remedies Charleen is also on the friend list of Allan. She made an offer to Allan and submitted that she is intended to buy the book @ $200. However, she submitted that she will pass the money by 6th November. When Allan nodded to the statement of Charleen, then, at that time, he was not accepting the offer of Charleen but was thinking of something else. So there was lack f intention when the acceptance was made. Also, the acceptance was not made against the offer. So, the acceptance made by Allan has no relevance in law. So, at this time there is no formation of contract amid the parties. Damiens legal position and remedies Damien was the friend of Bernard and is not on the facebook friend list of Allan. However he was interested in buying the book from Allan. An sms is send by Damien to Allan wherein he submitted that he is interested in buying the book and can sent the money by 4th November. This is an offer which is made by Damien to Allan. But, there is no acceptance that is made by Allan to Damien. In fact the invitation was not for Damien as he was not on the friends list of Allan. But, later in the evening of 4th November, Damien saw Allan and made a personal offer to Allan to buy the book at $ 200. Allan accepted this new offer of Damien and submitted that he will hand over the books by 7th November. So, a valid contract was established amid Damien and Allan on 4th November for the sale and purchase of the book at $ 200. Alternate dispute resolution technique and their respective pros and cons? Whenever two parties are in conflict with each other, then, they try to resolve their disputes. The resolution is normally attained through court process called litigation. Litigation is a most common technique to resolve the disputes wherein one party (plaintiff/aggrieved) imposes allegations on another party (defendant/defaulter) and the other party defends the allegations so imposed.(Kevin, 1999) Further, when litigation is commenced amid the parties then it takes considerable amount of time to resolve the disputes. Litigation is not only time consuming but also it is costly in nature. Further, both the parties must represent themselves through lawyer (not always necessary) in order to represent their case in the court of law thereby making the process of law more costly.(Charles, 1999) Thus, in order to curb the disadvantages that are associated with the process of litigation and to bring justice with no time delay and with cost effectiveness, a new method or technique was brought in to resolve the disputes. It is called Alternate Dispute resolution mechanism. Alternative dispute resolution mechanism is a technique wherein party does not move to the court of law to resolve their disputes, rather, the dispute is resolved with the help of a third natural party who after analyzing the arguments of both the parties come with an outcome which at times is binding upon the parities. An Alternative dispute resolution mechanism lays down two different methods of dispute resolution; the same are arbitration and conciliation. Arbitration When the two disputed parties intent to resolve their disputes with the help of an independent third party, who is neutral, then, it is a process of arbitration. The neutral person is called an arbitrator. The decision of the arbitrator is binding upon the parties and the parties cannot later submit that they are not interested in the outcome of the arbitration. The parties only represent the case and it is the arbitrator ho after full analysis to the facts and arguments come to the desired solution. (Tay, (1998) ) The main advantages that are associated with the process of arbitration are that it is the most effective alternative that is found when compared with litigation. It is not very time consuming when compared with the litigation process. Also, the expenses that are incurred are also less from litigation. The neutral person is someone who is the representative of the parties and thus both the parties believe in the decision of the arbitrator. There is presence of confidentiality and reliability. The decisions of the arbitrator are binding and thus there are less conflicts. But, there are few disadvantages that are also associated with the process of arbitration. Though the decision of the arbitrator is binding upon the parties however, if the parties are not in consent with the decision then they can go to the court of law. By going to litigation again increases the cost of dispute resolution. The common place of dispute resolution is at times not desirable to be reached by the parties. Another method which is normally availed by the parties, apart from arbitration, to resolve their disputes is mediation. (Grant Peter, 2015) Mediation When a third party is selected by the parties to the dispute in order to resolve the dispute, but, wherein the decision by the third party is not binding, then, it is the process of mediation. The third party who resolves the dispute is called mediator. The role of the mediator is merely counseling or guiding the parties and there is no set procedure that is followed by the mediator while coming to a decision. (Joel Hwee, 2009) There are few advantages that are associated with mediation are that, it is not very expensive nor the same is very time consuming. Since the decision is not binding upon the parties thus there is freedom that is availed to the parties to resolve to some other dispute resolution technique. Confidentiality is maintained in the process. However, there are few disadvantages that are also associated with the process. Since the decision is not binding thus it results in unending resolution of disputes. The intention of the parties is not to resolve the disputes. It is thus concluding that the process of arbitration and mediation are both very effective method of dispute resolution and thus any of them can be attained against litigation which is very time consuming and expensive. Conclusion It is thus concluded that a valid contract was established amid Damien and Allan on 4th November for the sale and purchase of the book at $ 200. Also, arbitration and mediations are the two alternative dispute resolution techniques which are normally used against litigation to resolve the disputes References Advice, S. L. (2012, August 14). Singapore Legal Advice. Retrieved May 15, 2017, from Requisite elements in the formation of a contract: https://singaporelegaladvice.com/law-articles/requisite-elements-in-the-formation-of-a-contract/ AG, R. I. ([2014] ). Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Company ([1892]). Charles, P. (1999). Economic Consequences of Litigation Worldwide. Kluwer Law International. Chwee Kin Keong and others v Digilandmall.com Pte Ltd (2004). Daniel John Brader and others v Commerzbank AG (2013). Fisher v Bell ([1961] ). Goh, V., Lee, W., Tham, C. (2014). Contract Law. SAL Ann Rev . Grant, J., Peter, P. (2015). ADR and Trusts: An international guide to arbitration and mediation of trust disputes. Spiramus Press Ltd. Hyde v Wrench ([1840]). Joel, L., Hwee, T. (2009). An Asian Perspective on Mediation. Academy Publishing. Kevin, T. (1999). The Singapore Legal System. Australia: NUS Press. Midlink Development Pte Ltd v The Stansfield Group Pte Ltd (2004). Nicholas, J. (2017). Nicholastong. Retrieved May 15, 2017, from Nicks Law Notes - Contarct law: https://www.nicholastong.com/law/Nick's%20Notes%20-%20Contract%20(Part%201).pdf Partridge v Crittenden ([1968]). R1 International Pte Ltd v Lonstroff AG (2014). RBC Properties Pte Ltd v Defu Furniture Pte Ltd ([2014] ). T2 Networks Pte Ltd v Nasioncom Sdn Bhd (2008). Tay, C. ((1998) ). Resolving Disputes by Arbitration: What You Need to Know . NUS Press. Tekdata Interconnections Ltd v Amphenol Ltd (2009). Woo Kah Wai v Chew Ai Hua Sandra ([2014]).

Thursday, April 23, 2020

Placebos Essays - Clinical Research, Medical Ethics,

Placebos A placebo is defined as an inactive substance resembling a medication, given for psychological effect or as a control in evaluating a medicine believed to be active. However the placebo only fits this description under the restraints it has been given by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, which refers to the placebo as an investigational new drug. In actuality, up until the present much of medicine was built on placebos. "Not very long ago, the rituals and symbols of healing constituted the bulk of the physicians armamentarium. In the early decades of the 20th century, most of the medication that doctors carried in their little black bags and kept in their office cabinets had little or no pharmacological value against the maladies for which they were prescribed. Nevertheless, their use in the appropriate clinical context was no doubt frequently beneficial."(Brown, 6) Even though placebos have been proven effective medicine time and time again the FDA remains reluctant to approve them for anything more than clinical research. The FDA stands on their disapproval of placebos as medicine on the basis that patients are to be given the best treatment available. Who is to say that a placebo is not as, if not more effective than the accepted remedy? There are an endless variety of cases that have proven placebos inconclusively effective. Among the most famous of these cases is the story of "Mr. Wright," who was found to have cancer and in 1957 was given only days to live. Hospitalized in Long Beach, California, with tumors the size of oranges, he heard that scientists had discovered a horse serum, Krebiozen, that appeared to be effective against cancer. After Wright begged to receive the serum, his physician, Dr. Philip West, finally agreed and gave wright the injection on a Friday afternoon, not telling Wright that injection consisted only of water. The following Monday the doctor was astonished to find that the patient's tumors were gone. Dr. West later wrote the tumors, " had melted like snowballs on a hot stove." At Tulane University, Dr. Eileen Palace has been using a placebo to restore sexual arousal in women who say they are nonorgasmic. The women are hooked up to a biofeedback machine that they are told measures their vaginal blood flow, an index of arousal. Then they are shown sexual stimuli that would arouse most women. The experiment then tricks the women by sending a false feedback signal, within 30 seconds, that their vaginal blood flow has increased. Almost immediately after they become genuinely aroused. In another case a study was carried out in Japan on 13 people that were extremely allergic to poison ivy. Each individual was rubbed on one arm with a harmless leaf and told that it was poison ivy and then rubbed on the opposite arm with poison ivy and told that it was harmless. All thirteen broke out in a rash where the harmless leaf had contacted their arm. Only two reacted to the poison ivy leaves. (Blakeslee, 2) In yet another example, patients with angina pectoris, chest pain, associated with heart disease, have been shown to improve substantially following an operation that involved nothing more than a simple skin incision. Angina also improved following a type of artery surgery once thought to be effective but later found to be ineffective. (Turner, 1) These are just a few of a great number of cases that prove the effectiveness of placebos. How do placebos work? There are many theories on how placebos work but really no definite answers. Many believe that the response to placebos is one of conditioning. That is that the site of a doctor, his white coat, the sterile smell, and a prescribed medication is equated with being cured, and because we think that we will get better we do. Some think that a placebo might reduce stress, allowing the body to regain some natural optimum level of health. Others believe that special molecules in the brain help carry out the placebo effect. A recent study found that stressed animals could produce a valium like substance in their brain if they have some control over the source of the stress. People must certainly share similar brain chemistry. (Blakeslee, 3) In any case, do we have to know how a placebo works if it is proven that it does work? There are certain birth control methods and stress therapies that work effectively, without explanation and with FDA approval. Many physicians discredit placebos because the feel that the use of a placebo is lying to the

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

nuc med essays

nuc med essays 1. When a tuning fork is held up to an ear and rotated, the orientation causes differing intensities in sound. In this case, if the tuning fork is held so the widest edge is parallel to the ear, the sound is the loudest. If it is held perpendicularly to the ear, the sound is moderately loud. If the fork is held at a 45-degree angle, the sound is still present, but it is the quietest of the orientations. 4. We counted a total of 7 cycles over a period of .02 seconds. We can conclude that one cycle was completed in .00286 seconds. Taking the inverse of this gives us a frequency of 350 Hz. The frequency given for this particular tuning fork was 349.2 Hz. 5. For the next part, two tuning forks, labeled 349.2 and 341.3 Hz respectively were both struck and then measured at the same time. The resultant graph of sound pressure vs. time is not a basic sinusoidal wave. The wave now looks like a normal sinusoidal wave, except the waves maximum amplitude oscillates over time. It is difficult to tell the specific component frequencies. However, it is possible to take the frequency of the beats, and this frequency is the difference between the two component frequencies. In this case, the period of the beats was about .12 seconds, which translates to about 8.333 Hz. This is approximately the difference between the frequencies of the two tuning forks used. 6. On the graph of the Fourier transform, the largest peak shows up at 347.9 Hz. This is reasonably close to the tuning forks actual frequency of 349.2 Hz. Other, much smaller peaks also show up at 695.8 Hz and 2154.54, which are two times, and six times the initial frequency, respectively. A similar behavior was observed with the other tuning fork. On this one, the Fourier transform graph shows the highest peak at 341.8 Hz. Smaller peaks can be seen at 677.49 Hz, and 2099.61 Hz. These frequencies are again two times, and six times the initial frequency, respectively. ...

Saturday, February 29, 2020

Balance Of Diversity And Unity Cultural Studies Essay

Balance Of Diversity And Unity Cultural Studies Essay For a country to be considered a superpower, it must have prominent import/export trade capacity, command political power in the world (allies), sustain a powerful military, and provide a substantial a high Gross National Product. What is usually overlooked is how the microeconomics is affected in a highly positive manner by the harmonious balance of diversity and unity within the successful countries that are operation so proficiently. The inner-workings and confluence between the cultures of any high ranking country are most probably functioning in a well defined rhythm. If there is a glitch in the smallest cog of the machine of any country it can usually be traced back to unrest in the social balance of diversity and unity, which results in the decline of a country’s economic success. A very crucial balance between unity and diversity within society is not an easy goal to achieve. Finding the perfect balance between any two principles can be an extremely difficult task, if not impossible. In this difficult search we look back in history to feudal China, where the philosophy of yin and yang were created. Svebor Hlede, an expert on the history of Chinese philosophy states that â€Å"The dual concepts of yin and yang which describe two primal opposing but complementary principles or cosmic forces said to be found in all non-static objects and processes in the universe† (Hlede). This seemingly paradoxical concept is the very nature of unity and diversity. Unity and diversity are two contradictory philosophies which must work in unison to allow a society to stray away from stagnation and stasis. When looking at the yin and yang circle, two parts which will represent unity and diversity are put together in a circle. This circle represents society as a whole, the two parts are contradicting aspects, they fight and interchange each other. Whenever the trend of unity increases, the trend of diversity decreases and so on. (Hlede) Abraham Lincoln, the si xteenth president of the United States, said â€Å"United we stand, divided we fall,† he was discussing the north/south cultural differences that brought on the Civil War. This concept of the absolute importance is appropriately valid in modern times to this day. One cannot survive on one’s own; therefore life is based upon and requires unity. Agreeing that unity is a principle building block in the base of a successful nation does not mean that the whole world follows this logic. For some, violence between cultures is such an ingrained tradition that balances between unity and diversity seems an improbable goal. It is the unfortunate truth â€Å"that when certain people in power try to promote unity within nations/countries, other certain people in power will do and say something that will cause disunity, which brings about war and all other types of evil things† (Thoughtz). For example, the current president of Iran invites aggravation when he states that the Holocaust did not happen. In another speech he advises the state of Israel should be wiped out. The condition of the Middle East is a proper example of no unity or acceptance of diversity. There is ongoing tension between the Israelis and its surround neighbors the bordering Arab countries. If one tries to promote unity in the Middle East, it is easily pushed aside when such an inflammatory statement is made by the president of Iran; this causes a tremendous uproar because the Holocaust did happen. Even in America there can be seen a sway in the balance of race relation and race unity. Racism is still happening in the US and also discrimination. Although progress has been made in the last half a century that unity can be disrupted when a racist incident occurs like the Jena 6 case. Racism is a leach on the social structure that keeps sucking away whatever unity seems to be gained.

Thursday, February 13, 2020

Crafting a Compensation and Benefits Plan Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Crafting a Compensation and Benefits Plan - Essay Example Despite these internal factors, there are also those external factors that compel the manager to offer a particular salary range for employees. Some of these include the salary that is provided for the same position by other organizations that provide similar kinds of services. However, the ability to recruit and maintain employees lies on the ability to value and appreciate their efforts as opposed to issuing any monetary values. Comparable organizations in the same industry tend to offer varied salary and benefit ranges for the purposes of recruiting and retaining their employees for different reasons. In this case, the company that I created in a coffee shop that is renowned for the best service of beverages. This is mainly because both the provision of goods and services are given directly to the customers by the employees hence it is important to ensure that the best are recruited and the best efforts made to retain them for the sake of customer satisfaction. Those that may be involved as competitors and who are in the same industry include supermarkets and large retail chain stores as well as restaurants that may be involved in the sale of similar products at the same price. All of these tend to have the same structure in the composition of their staff and overall staffing with minor differences hence similar levels and need for recruitment and retention. Their salary and benefit ranges are as follows The 21st Century is varied from the other periods in terms of the abilities to recruit and maintain employees in terms of payment. What the current employees consider as benefits is completely different from what they considered to be so in the past. Monetary terms and payment played a large role in the recruitment and retention of employees in the past. It is, however, no longer the case as the current employees consider the value of the organization towards them more. What they consider as benefits of the company is the need to be engaged and involved