Sunday, August 23, 2020
Codependency is a scholarly conduct that can be passed down starting with one age then onto the next. It is a passionate and social condition that influences an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s capacity to have a sound, commonly fulfilling relationship. It is otherwise called Ã¢â¬Å"relationship addictionÃ¢â¬ on the grounds that individuals with codependency frequently frame or keep up connections that are uneven, sincerely dangerous or potentially injurious. The confusion was first recognized around ten years prior as the consequence of long periods of contemplating relational connections in groups of alcoholics.Co-subordinate conduct is found out by watching and emulating other relatives who show this sort of conduct. Who Does Co-reliance Affect? Codependency frequently influences a mate, a parent, kin, companion, or colleague of an individual harassed with liquor or medication reliance. Initially, mutually dependent was a term used to portray accomplices in synthetic reliance, people living with, or in a relationship with a dependent individual. Comparable examples have been found in individuals involved with incessantly or intellectually sick people. Today, be that as it may, the term has expanded to portray any mutually dependent individual from any broken family. What is a Dysfunctional Family and How Does it Lead to Co-reliance? A useless family is one in which individuals experience the ill effects of dread, outrage, torment, or disgrace that is overlooked or denied. Fundamental issues may incorporate any of the accompanying: Ã¢â¬ ¢An dependence by a relative to drugs, liquor, connections, work, food, sex, or betting. Ã¢â¬ ¢The presence of physical, passionate, or sexual maltreatment. Ã¢â¬ ¢The nearness of a relative experiencing an incessant mental or physical sickness. Useless families don't recognize that issues exist. They donÃ¢â¬â¢t talk about them or go up against them. Subsequently, relatives figure out how to curb feelings and dismissal their own needs. They become Ã¢â¬Å"survivors. Ã¢â¬ They create practices that help them deny, disregard, or maintain a strategic distance from troublesome feelings. They disconnect themselves. They donÃ¢â¬â¢t talk. They donÃ¢â¬â¢t contact. They donÃ¢â¬â¢t stand up to. They donÃ¢â¬â¢t feel. They donÃ¢â¬â¢t trust. The character and passionate advancement of the individuals from a useless family are frequently repressed Attention and vitality center around the relative who is sick or ddicted. The mutually dependent individual ordinarily forfeits their necessities to deal with an individual who is wiped out. At the point when mutually dependent people place different peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s wellbeing, government assistance and security before their own, they can lose contact with their own needs, wants, and feeling of self. How Do Co-subordinate People Behave? Mutually dependent people have low confidence and search for anything outside of themselves to cause them to feel better. They think that its hard to Ã¢â¬Å"be themselves. Ã¢â¬ Some attempt to feel better through liquor, medications or nicotine Ã¢â¬ and become dependent. Related paper: Shame is Worth a Try Others may create impulsive practices like workaholism, betting, or aimless sexual movement. They mean well. They attempt to deal with an individual who is encountering trouble, however the caretaking gets urgent and vanquishing. Mutually dependent people regularly take on a martyrÃ¢â¬â¢s job and become Ã¢â¬Å"benefactorsÃ¢â¬ to a person out of luck. A spouse may cover for her alcoholic husband; a mother may rationalize a truant kid; or a dad may Ã¢â¬Å"pull some stringsÃ¢â¬ to shield his kid from enduring the results of reprobate conduct. The issue is that these rehashed salvage endeavors permit the penniless individual to proceed on a dangerous course and to turn out to be much increasingly subject to the unfortunate caretaking of the Ã¢â¬Å"benefactor. Ã¢â¬ As this dependence builds, the mutually dependent builds up a feeling of remuneration and fulfillment from Ã¢â¬Å"being required. Ã¢â¬ When the caretaking gets habitual, the mutually dependent feels choiceless and defenseless in the relationship, yet can't split away from the pattern of conduct that causes it. Mutually dependent people see themselves as casualties and are pulled in to that equivalent shortcoming in the adoration and companionship connections.
Friday, August 21, 2020
Right now, as far as web improvement, Flash, notwithstanding its prosperity, is still not viewed as a standard since it is a restrictive innovation supplier. While web assumes a significant job in business, correspondence and society ought not be in the hands of an autonomous provider. Be that as it may, surrendering Flash intends to overhaul the web, with all the trouble and exorbitant. Presently, when the HTML5 shows up, the rise of HTML5 makes more certainty and comfort to the individuals who don't care for Flash.This paper centers around the absolute first meaning of HTML to lead you to the advanced web which may supplant Flash sooner rather than later. What is it HTML is a language that gives a way to make organized reports by meaning basic semantics for content, for example, headings, passages, records, connections, cites and different things. HTML5Ã is at present a work in progress, as the following significant update of the HTML standard. This code would now be able to be ut ilized for new capacities that can profit designers and Internet clients. What it comprises of? HTML5 closes various new components and attributes.The generally significant of them are: CANVAS ELEMENT The canvas component can be utilized for depicting charts, game designs or other visual pictures on the fly. Depending on modules isn't important. The conceivable outcomes are inestimable. VIDEO ELEMENT Embedding video used to be outlandish without outsider modules, for example, Apple QuickTime or Adobe Flash. Because of video component, presently itÃ¢â¬â¢s conceivable. It is proposed by its makers to turn into the new standard approach to show video on the web. GEOLOCATION Locating a usersÃ¢â¬â¢ place is anything but another thing on the web. Truth be told, most sites as of now do this by methods for IP address detection.But this isn't constantly solid, so HTML5Ã¢â¬â¢s geolocation is an elective technique for effectively pinpointing a usersÃ¢â¬â¢ area. The new thought is to ge t the area data from Wi-fi towers and GPS. Disconnected WEB APPLICATION Despite of their inaccessible system association, the disconnected web applications empower clients to keep connecting with web applications and reports. The client can, for example, get to email locally without interfacing with the Internet or introduce an outer customer. How it functions HTML5 offers help for video and sound Ã¢â¬Å"naturallyÃ¢â¬ .It implies that clients can watch recordings on location like the manner in which they read the content arrangement without trying introducing Flash framework program or some other module program or not. How it will be utilized HTML5 has been created since 2004 however now providers of Apple, Opera, Mozilla and Google as of late manufactured new components of this perfect language in programs. Toward the finish of January, YouTube Ã¢â¬ the greatest video sharing site on the planet Ã¢â¬ declared to test HTML5. Indeed, even Microsoft, alongside advancing Sliverlight innovation (to rival Flash), additionally got intrigued by web norms and expected to bring HTML5 to Internet Explorer.Benefits contrast and other innovation * Offline stockpiling: Kind of like Ã¢â¬Å"Super CookiesÃ¢â¬ , yet with substantially more space to store for both one-time information and relentless application databases. * Canvas drawing: Sites can separate a space on a page where intelligent pictures, diagrams and charts, game segments, and whatever else creative mind permits can be drawn legitimately by programming code and client interactionÃ¢â¬no Flash or other modules required. * Smarter structure: Search boxes, content sources of info, and other you-type-here fields show signs of improvement controls for centering, approving information, connecting with other page components, sending through email, and that's only the tip of the iceberg. Web application center: ItÃ¢â¬â¢s reasonable for state that HTML5 is meant to make it simpler to fabricate wikis, simplified de vices, ongoing visit, and other present day web, and have them work the equivalent across programs. Potential Disadvantage * Basic liveliness and media highlights. * Lack of good tooling to be gainful in growing enormous measured HTML 5 applications. * Very constrained help for media designs. * User may should be associated with utilize a HTML 5 application. * Inconsistencies of HTML being executed between internet browsers (various pieces of the standard are actualized).
Friday, July 10, 2020
Assisting in Writing a PaperAssisting in writing a paper has to be one of the most time consuming, frustrating and tiring things a student can do. It is like walking a tightrope with your research paper, you might stumble but it will all be worth it. A proper outline is crucial to ensure the best result. It will allow you to plan the research effectively and with minimum fuss.Begin with what you are writing about. This may seem obvious but it really matters to some students. In their mind, they have a story to tell and it is up to you to help them write an interesting story. That is why they have an outline in mind. They know exactly what they want to talk about so you must let them decide what topics should go into their paper.There are so many different topics that can be tackled in a paper. A term paper is probably the most common. They cover topics such as science, culture, history and economics. Other areas are also very common, which include politics, philosophy, spirituality, health, human psychology, business, management, advertising, fashion, art and other areas that can be combined to cover the term paper topic.You can also choose to write a report in school, which is an outcome of an independent study or classroom assignment. There are various different types of reports to choose from such as accounts, opinions, recommendations, books, articles, testimony, speeches, class discussions and so on. Students usually have a preference based on the topic. The more comprehensive the assignment the more difficult it can be to choose the right one. Students need the services of an expert and help in writing a paper to make sure the assignment goes smoothly.It is a good idea to ask a few people what their preferences are. Usually, the faculty or staff at the school you are taking the class are able to guide you in finding the right assistant. They can provide you with the names of the right assistants that will assist you in writing a paper. You can do a backgr ound check on the credentials of the person to ensure that they are qualified to write your assignment.You may also find assistance through your library. They have several assistants that can help you in your research project. You can ask the assistant to help you with notes and plan out the paper on paper. They will make sure you have enough information and do it in the proper order to ensure the best results.Help in writing a paper is very important in order to get the work done and to give you a deadline to meet. There are a lot of different styles to help you when writing a paper. Just remember that there are pros and cons to having assistance and you may find yourself relying on the service instead of your own strength and expertise.
Wednesday, May 20, 2020
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Community Psychology and Public Health approaches to Social Problems All change, individual or collective, stems from discontent or dissatisfaction with the status quo. The same is true of mainstream Psychology. The 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s through to the mid 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s gave rise to Community Health Psychology and The Public Health Psychology. Both these movements are concerned with prevention and the need to address social injustices and structures to include the community and society at large and not just the elitist minority. NeitherÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦A three -tier structure, namely primary, secondary and tertiary intervention exists. A good example to illustrate this would be alcoholism or substance abuse. On a primary intervention, campaigns warn off the harmful effects of substances abuse. The secondary intervention is the abuse itself, the ability to recognise the symptoms and treatment via rehabilitation or counseling, whilst tertiary intervention is the support that is offered after rehabilitation. Here organisations like Alcoholics Ano nymous come into play, to prevent relapses and to offer maximum support. I believe the Public Health Model to be a very strong, workable model. Like the above model, it has empowerment on various levels and takes into account the various social and behavioural sciences and itÃ¢â¬â¢s impact on the individual. It attempts to know it and integrate it as part of the model rather than a model within it. It realizes the importance of understanding and manipulating these sciences to the desired end. However a strong criticism of this model is that the participants are viewed as being passive. There doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to be any push from the individual himself but merely society restructuring to accommodate him on all levels. Also it does not take into account religious and traditional beliefs. In western society sharing of utensils is unhygienic, yet in African society it is almost the norm. The Community Psychology and PublicShow MoreRelatedCommunity Psychology and Public Health Approaches to Social Problems in South Africa806 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesMy aim in this paper is to analyse community psychology and public health and distinguish between the two approaches. Community Psychology focuses on economic, environmental, political and social factors that influence the way in which people all over the world live their lives. It also touches on social factors that contribute or causes problems in various societies. Public Health on the other hand, according to Tutorial Letter 102/0/2014, is defined as being concerned with Ã¢â¬Å"preventing disease andRead MoreCritically Compare and Contrast Community Psychology and Public Health Approaches to Social Problems851 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescontrast community psychology and public health approaches to social problems. I will do this by comparing strengths and weaknesses of both approaches, as well as similarities between these app roaches. To compare these two concepts, one should first have a basic understanding of the origins and historical development of community psychology and public health. According to the American Heritage Medical dictionary (www.ahdictionary.com) Community Psychology is Ã¢â¬Å"the application of psychology to communityRead MoreCommunity Psychology1488 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescompare and contrast community psychology with the public health approach Introduction In this essay, I will critically compare and contrast community psychology and the public health model in terms of their origins, core concepts, strengths and pitfalls of each approach, similarities and differences and in what way these approaches do or do not supplement one another. Community Psychology according to The Cambridge Dictionary of Psychology is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"a branch of applied psychology that focuses onRead MoreComparison with Community Psychology and Public Health1055 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdefines community psychology (CP) as Ã¢â¬Å"the application of psychology to community programs for the prevention of mental health disorders and the promotion of mental health.Ã¢â¬ Publi c health (PH) on the other hand is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the science and practice of protecting and improving the health of a community as by preventative medicine; health education; control of communicable diseases; application of sanitary measures and monitoring of environmental hazards (website two, 2007).Ã¢â¬ Both approaches have itsRead MoreComparison with Community Psychology and Public Health1049 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdefines community psychology (CP) as Ã¢â¬Å"the application of psychology to community programs for the prevention of mental health disorders and the promotion of mental health.Ã¢â¬ Public health (PH) on the other hand is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the science and practice of protecting and improving the health of a community as by preventative medicine; health education; control of communicable diseases; application of sanitary measures and monitoring of environmental hazards (website two, 2007).Ã¢â¬ Both approaches have itsRead MoreA Comparison of Community Psycho logy and Public Health1179 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCOMPARISON OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY AND PUBLIC HEALTH. 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Early research methods employed case studies of individuals and of individual societies (e.g., primitive tribes). Later research has made statistical comparisons of numbers of persons or of different societies; differences in child-rearing Community Psychology and Public Health Approaches to... My aim in this paper is to analyse community psychology and public health and distinguish between the two approaches. Community Psychology focuses on economic, environmental, political and social factors that influence the way in which people all over the world live their lives. It also touches on social factors that contribute or causes problems in various societies. Public Health on the other hand, according to Tutorial Letter 102/0/2014, is defined as being concerned with Ã¢â¬Å"preventing disease and distressÃ¢â¬ in the community as a whole, not just the individual, before they occur. It promotes healthy living and with the prevention of illness linked with lifestyle. To compare these two concepts, one should first have a basic understanding of the origins and historical development of community psychology and public health. Community Psychology are very much linked with the mental health reform movements in the USA. The three most important reform movements were; Ã¢â¬ËMoral TreatmentÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËThe Mental HygieneÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËDeinstitutionalisationÃ¢â¬â¢. Each of these movements have led to the establishment of particular types of institution: In the Moral Treatment era, we got therapeutic mental hospitals, the Mental Hygiene era gave us Child Guidance Clinics and the establishment of Community Health Centers came in the Deinstitutionalisation era (Tutorial Letter 102/0/2014). Public health, like community psychology, focuses on prevention of disease. It is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the science and practice ofShow MoreRelatedCommunity Psychology1488 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescompare and contrast community psychology with the public health approach Introduction In this essay, I will critically compare and contrast community psychology and the public health model in terms of their origins, core concepts, strengths and pitfalls of each approach, similarities and differences and in what way these approaches do or do not supplement one another. Community Psychology according to The Cambridge Dictionary of Psychology is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"a branch of applied psychology that focuses onRead MoreA Comparison of Community Psychology and Public Health1179 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCOMPARISON OF COMMUNITY PSYCHOLOGY AND PUBLIC HEALTH. In this assignment the key differences and similarities of community psychology and the public health approach will be examined and critically compared. Community Psychology is a branch of psychology which is concerned primarily with achieving positive mental health in the broader context of the community rather than the individual. Public health is primarily concerned and focused on changing behaviours within the context of the public in orderRead MoreComparison with Community Psychology and Public Health1055 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdefines community psychology (CP) as Ã¢â¬Å"the application of psychology to community programs for the prevention of mental health disorders and the promotion of mental health.Ã¢â¬ Public health (PH) on the other hand is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the science and practice of protecting and improving the health of a community as by preventative medicine; health education; control of communicable diseases; application of sanitary measures and monitoring of enviro nmental hazards (website two, 2007).Ã¢â¬ Both approaches have itsRead MoreComparison with Community Psychology and Public Health1049 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdefines community psychology (CP) as Ã¢â¬Å"the application of psychology to community programs for the prevention of mental health disorders and the promotion of mental health.Ã¢â¬ Public health (PH) on the other hand is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"the science and practice of protecting and improving the health of a community as by preventative medicine; health education; control of communicable diseases; application of sanitary measures and monitoring of environmental hazards (website two, 2007).Ã¢â¬ Both approaches have itsRead MoreCritically Compare and Contrast Community Psychology and Public Health Approaches to Social Problems851 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescontrast community psychology and public health approaches to social problems. 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Questions: Whether any contract is formed, if yes, when the same was formed and with whom? Bernards legal position and remedies? Charlenes legal position and remedies? Damiens legal position and remedies? Types of alternate dispute resolution technique and their respective pros and cons? Answers: Introducation The contract is an agreement which can be enforceable in law provided it comprises of all the contract essentials (RBC Properties Pte Ltd v Defu Furniture Pte Ltd ,  ). The main contract essentials are:(Advice, 2012) An offer is a contract ingredient which is made by an offeror to an offeree according to which proposals with defined term are made and it is desired that the offeree will approve the offer (Woo Kah Wai v Chew Ai Hua Sandra , ). When the offer comes in the notion of offeree then it is complete(Daniel John Brader and others v Commerzbank AG, 2013).(Goh, Lee, Tham, 2014) An acceptance is the confirmation of the offer by the offeree. The acceptance should correspond to the terms of the offer in order to be valid. It is the offeree who should accept the offer. Confirmation by any other person is not an acceptance in law(Midlink Development Pte Ltd v The Stansfield Group Pte Ltd, 2004). When the acceptance comes in the knowledge of the offeror then it is complete (R1 International Pte Ltd v Lonstroff AG, 2014). When the acceptance is made by post, then, it is complete when the letter is posted. (Goh, Lee, Tham, 2014) Whenever an acceptance is made then the offeree must agree to the terms of the offer. If an acceptance is made which is not equivalent to the offer terms then there is no offer (Hyde v Wrench , ). When the offeree does not accept the offer but changes the terms of the offer then it is counter offer (Tekdata Interconnections Ltd v Amphenol Ltd, 2009). A counter offer cancels the offer and the new offer is the counter offers which if approved by the offeror results in contract.(Nicholas, 2017) When no offer is made but offers are invited from public then it is invitation to offer (Fisher v Bell ,  ). An invitation can be made through advertisement. The people relying on advertisement can make offer and the adviser must accept the same to make a binding contract (Partridge v Crittenden , ). (Nicholas, 2017) When an offer is accepted then there is agreement that is made amid the parties. But, when the promises are exchanged then the parties must have legal intention when the same are done. Any offer and acceptance when made without any legal intention then it has no relevance in law (T2 Networks Pte Ltd v Nasioncom Sdn Bhd, 2008). In domestic relationship, the legal intention is normally presumed to be lacking but is presume to be present in commercial relationships. But, this presumption is rebuttable. (Goh, Lee, Tham, 2014) Apart from offer, acceptance and intention, the parties must be exchanging the promises with some kind of benefit which supports the promises. It is called consideration in law and it makes the contract enforceable in law (Chwee Kin Keong and others v Digilandmall.com Pte Ltd , 2004). Thus, these are the main elements of contract law which is applied to the facts of the case. Application of law As per the facts, Alan was a student. He intends to sell his books introduction to business law in Singapore. On 1st November 2015, he posted a note on facebook wherein he invited his friends to make offers to buy the book. So, as per (Fisher v Bell ,  )and (Partridge v Crittenden , ), Allan has made an invitation to offer by advertising his book and his notes for sale. The selling price of the book/notes was $ 200 and he kept the offer open till 5th November. Also, as per (Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Company , ), the offer is for specific persons, so, the acceptance must also be made from such persons only. Since the offeree are defines, so, the acceptance must be made by the offeree only. Now, the issues are resolved. A valid contract was established amid Allan and Damien on 4th November evening, when an offer is made by Damien to buy the book at $ 200 and the same was accepted by Allan there and then. Bernards legal position and remedies On 2nd November, Bernard (who is the friend of the facebook of Allan) made an offer to Allan that he is interested in buying the book. However, he offered that he is interested in buying the book @ $150. Thus, an offer is made by Bernard which must be accepted by Allan to make a valid contract with Bernard. On 3rd Nov, Allan replied to the post of Bernard and he submitted that he is not keen to accept the offer at $ 150. Thus, the offer that is made by Bernard is rejected by Allan. Now, there is no offer which is present against which an acceptance can be made by the parties. On 4th November, Bernard posted $ 200 to Allan which is received by Allan on 5th November. However, Bernard has sent an acceptance, but, the same is not valid as there is no offer which is made by Allan to Bernard. No acceptance can be made when there is no offer at place. It will make no difference as when the letter is posted and when it is received. Since there is no offer so there can be no acceptance without the same. iii.Charleens legal position and remedies Charleen is also on the friend list of Allan. She made an offer to Allan and submitted that she is intended to buy the book @ $200. However, she submitted that she will pass the money by 6th November. When Allan nodded to the statement of Charleen, then, at that time, he was not accepting the offer of Charleen but was thinking of something else. So there was lack f intention when the acceptance was made. Also, the acceptance was not made against the offer. So, the acceptance made by Allan has no relevance in law. So, at this time there is no formation of contract amid the parties. Damiens legal position and remedies Damien was the friend of Bernard and is not on the facebook friend list of Allan. However he was interested in buying the book from Allan. An sms is send by Damien to Allan wherein he submitted that he is interested in buying the book and can sent the money by 4th November. This is an offer which is made by Damien to Allan. But, there is no acceptance that is made by Allan to Damien. In fact the invitation was not for Damien as he was not on the friends list of Allan. But, later in the evening of 4th November, Damien saw Allan and made a personal offer to Allan to buy the book at $ 200. Allan accepted this new offer of Damien and submitted that he will hand over the books by 7th November. So, a valid contract was established amid Damien and Allan on 4th November for the sale and purchase of the book at $ 200. Alternate dispute resolution technique and their respective pros and cons? Whenever two parties are in conflict with each other, then, they try to resolve their disputes. The resolution is normally attained through court process called litigation. Litigation is a most common technique to resolve the disputes wherein one party (plaintiff/aggrieved) imposes allegations on another party (defendant/defaulter) and the other party defends the allegations so imposed.(Kevin, 1999) Further, when litigation is commenced amid the parties then it takes considerable amount of time to resolve the disputes. Litigation is not only time consuming but also it is costly in nature. Further, both the parties must represent themselves through lawyer (not always necessary) in order to represent their case in the court of law thereby making the process of law more costly.(Charles, 1999) Thus, in order to curb the disadvantages that are associated with the process of litigation and to bring justice with no time delay and with cost effectiveness, a new method or technique was brought in to resolve the disputes. It is called Alternate Dispute resolution mechanism. Alternative dispute resolution mechanism is a technique wherein party does not move to the court of law to resolve their disputes, rather, the dispute is resolved with the help of a third natural party who after analyzing the arguments of both the parties come with an outcome which at times is binding upon the parities. An Alternative dispute resolution mechanism lays down two different methods of dispute resolution; the same are arbitration and conciliation. Arbitration When the two disputed parties intent to resolve their disputes with the help of an independent third party, who is neutral, then, it is a process of arbitration. The neutral person is called an arbitrator. The decision of the arbitrator is binding upon the parties and the parties cannot later submit that they are not interested in the outcome of the arbitration. The parties only represent the case and it is the arbitrator ho after full analysis to the facts and arguments come to the desired solution. (Tay, (1998) ) The main advantages that are associated with the process of arbitration are that it is the most effective alternative that is found when compared with litigation. It is not very time consuming when compared with the litigation process. Also, the expenses that are incurred are also less from litigation. The neutral person is someone who is the representative of the parties and thus both the parties believe in the decision of the arbitrator. There is presence of confidentiality and reliability. The decisions of the arbitrator are binding and thus there are less conflicts. But, there are few disadvantages that are also associated with the process of arbitration. Though the decision of the arbitrator is binding upon the parties however, if the parties are not in consent with the decision then they can go to the court of law. By going to litigation again increases the cost of dispute resolution. The common place of dispute resolution is at times not desirable to be reached by the parties. Another method which is normally availed by the parties, apart from arbitration, to resolve their disputes is mediation. (Grant Peter, 2015) Mediation When a third party is selected by the parties to the dispute in order to resolve the dispute, but, wherein the decision by the third party is not binding, then, it is the process of mediation. The third party who resolves the dispute is called mediator. The role of the mediator is merely counseling or guiding the parties and there is no set procedure that is followed by the mediator while coming to a decision. (Joel Hwee, 2009) There are few advantages that are associated with mediation are that, it is not very expensive nor the same is very time consuming. Since the decision is not binding upon the parties thus there is freedom that is availed to the parties to resolve to some other dispute resolution technique. Confidentiality is maintained in the process. However, there are few disadvantages that are also associated with the process. Since the decision is not binding thus it results in unending resolution of disputes. The intention of the parties is not to resolve the disputes. It is thus concluding that the process of arbitration and mediation are both very effective method of dispute resolution and thus any of them can be attained against litigation which is very time consuming and expensive. Conclusion It is thus concluded that a valid contract was established amid Damien and Allan on 4th November for the sale and purchase of the book at $ 200. Also, arbitration and mediations are the two alternative dispute resolution techniques which are normally used against litigation to resolve the disputes References Advice, S. L. (2012, August 14). Singapore Legal Advice. Retrieved May 15, 2017, from Requisite elements in the formation of a contract: https://singaporelegaladvice.com/law-articles/requisite-elements-in-the-formation-of-a-contract/ AG, R. I. ( ). Carlill v Carbolic Smoke Ball Company (). Charles, P. (1999). Economic Consequences of Litigation Worldwide. Kluwer Law International. Chwee Kin Keong and others v Digilandmall.com Pte Ltd (2004). Daniel John Brader and others v Commerzbank AG (2013). Fisher v Bell ( ). Goh, V., Lee, W., Tham, C. (2014). Contract Law. SAL Ann Rev . Grant, J., Peter, P. (2015). ADR and Trusts: An international guide to arbitration and mediation of trust disputes. Spiramus Press Ltd. Hyde v Wrench (). Joel, L., Hwee, T. (2009). An Asian Perspective on Mediation. Academy Publishing. Kevin, T. (1999). The Singapore Legal System. Australia: NUS Press. Midlink Development Pte Ltd v The Stansfield Group Pte Ltd (2004). Nicholas, J. (2017). Nicholastong. Retrieved May 15, 2017, from Nicks Law Notes - Contarct law: https://www.nicholastong.com/law/Nick's%20Notes%20-%20Contract%20(Part%201).pdf Partridge v Crittenden (). R1 International Pte Ltd v Lonstroff AG (2014). RBC Properties Pte Ltd v Defu Furniture Pte Ltd ( ). T2 Networks Pte Ltd v Nasioncom Sdn Bhd (2008). Tay, C. ((1998) ). Resolving Disputes by Arbitration: What You Need to Know . NUS Press. Tekdata Interconnections Ltd v Amphenol Ltd (2009). Woo Kah Wai v Chew Ai Hua Sandra ().
Thursday, April 23, 2020
Placebos A placebo is defined as an inactive substance resembling a medication, given for psychological effect or as a control in evaluating a medicine believed to be active. However the placebo only fits this description under the restraints it has been given by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, which refers to the placebo as an investigational new drug. In actuality, up until the present much of medicine was built on placebos. "Not very long ago, the rituals and symbols of healing constituted the bulk of the physicians armamentarium. In the early decades of the 20th century, most of the medication that doctors carried in their little black bags and kept in their office cabinets had little or no pharmacological value against the maladies for which they were prescribed. Nevertheless, their use in the appropriate clinical context was no doubt frequently beneficial."(Brown, 6) Even though placebos have been proven effective medicine time and time again the FDA remains reluctant to approve them for anything more than clinical research. The FDA stands on their disapproval of placebos as medicine on the basis that patients are to be given the best treatment available. Who is to say that a placebo is not as, if not more effective than the accepted remedy? There are an endless variety of cases that have proven placebos inconclusively effective. Among the most famous of these cases is the story of "Mr. Wright," who was found to have cancer and in 1957 was given only days to live. Hospitalized in Long Beach, California, with tumors the size of oranges, he heard that scientists had discovered a horse serum, Krebiozen, that appeared to be effective against cancer. After Wright begged to receive the serum, his physician, Dr. Philip West, finally agreed and gave wright the injection on a Friday afternoon, not telling Wright that injection consisted only of water. The following Monday the doctor was astonished to find that the patient's tumors were gone. Dr. West later wrote the tumors, " had melted like snowballs on a hot stove." At Tulane University, Dr. Eileen Palace has been using a placebo to restore sexual arousal in women who say they are nonorgasmic. The women are hooked up to a biofeedback machine that they are told measures their vaginal blood flow, an index of arousal. Then they are shown sexual stimuli that would arouse most women. The experiment then tricks the women by sending a false feedback signal, within 30 seconds, that their vaginal blood flow has increased. Almost immediately after they become genuinely aroused. In another case a study was carried out in Japan on 13 people that were extremely allergic to poison ivy. Each individual was rubbed on one arm with a harmless leaf and told that it was poison ivy and then rubbed on the opposite arm with poison ivy and told that it was harmless. All thirteen broke out in a rash where the harmless leaf had contacted their arm. Only two reacted to the poison ivy leaves. (Blakeslee, 2) In yet another example, patients with angina pectoris, chest pain, associated with heart disease, have been shown to improve substantially following an operation that involved nothing more than a simple skin incision. Angina also improved following a type of artery surgery once thought to be effective but later found to be ineffective. (Turner, 1) These are just a few of a great number of cases that prove the effectiveness of placebos. How do placebos work? There are many theories on how placebos work but really no definite answers. Many believe that the response to placebos is one of conditioning. That is that the site of a doctor, his white coat, the sterile smell, and a prescribed medication is equated with being cured, and because we think that we will get better we do. Some think that a placebo might reduce stress, allowing the body to regain some natural optimum level of health. Others believe that special molecules in the brain help carry out the placebo effect. A recent study found that stressed animals could produce a valium like substance in their brain if they have some control over the source of the stress. People must certainly share similar brain chemistry. (Blakeslee, 3) In any case, do we have to know how a placebo works if it is proven that it does work? There are certain birth control methods and stress therapies that work effectively, without explanation and with FDA approval. Many physicians discredit placebos because the feel that the use of a placebo is lying to the